The Human Brain Evolving: Paleoneurological Studies in Honor of Ralph L. Holloway presents a range of important studies focusing on human brain evolution. Based upon a Stone Age Institute conference held at Indiana University, Bloomington, this book features many of the principal investigators in paleoneurology and related fields. Topics include theoretical concepts, studies of fossil and modern brain endocasts, genetic studies, neurological structure and development, and brain evolution and its relation to behavior. This state-of-the-art collection of papers expands our knowledge and understanding of human brain evolution, highlights current issues in the field, and suggests new avenues of inquiry for the future.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Human Brain Evolving: A Personal Retrospective (Ralph L. Holloway)
Chapter 2: The Maternal Energy Hypothesis of Brain Evolution (Robert R. Martin & Karen Isler)
Chapter 3: The Meaning of Brain Size: The Evolution of Conceptual Complexity (P. Tom Schoenemann)
Chapter 4: Human Brain Endocasts and th LB1 Hobbit Brain (Ralph L. Holloway)
Chapter 5: The Fossil Hominid Brains of Dmanisi: D 2280 and D2282 (Dominique Grimaud-Herve & David Lordkipanidze)
Chapter 6: The Evolution of the Parietal Cortical Areas in the Human Genus: Between Structure and Cognition (Emiliano Bruner)
Chapter 7: Cerebellum and Brain Evolution in Holocene Humans (Anne H. Weaver)
Chapter 8: Study of Human brain Evolution at the Genetic Level (Eric J. Vallender & Bruce T. Lahn)
Chapter 9: Brain Reorganization in Humans and Apes (Katerina Semendeferi, Nicole Barger, and Natalie Schenker)
Chapter 10: Searching for Human brain Specializations with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging (James K. Rilling)
Chapter 11: Structural and Diffusion MRI of a Gorilla Brain Performed Ex Vivo at 9.4 Tesla (Jason A. Kaufman, J. Michael Tyszka, Francine "Penny" Patterson, Joseph M. Erwin, Patrick R. Hof, and John M. Allman)
Chapter 12: The Role of Vertical Organization in the Encephalization and Reorganization of the Primate Cortex (Daniel P. Buxhoeveden)
Chapter 13: The Evolution of Cortical Neurotransmitter Systems Among Primates and their Relevance to Cognition (Mary Ann Raghanti, Patrick R. Hof, and Chet C. Sherwood)
Chapter 14: Sex Differences in the Corpus Callosum of Macaca fascicularis and Pan troglodytes (Douglas C. Broadfield)
Chapter 15: Dental Maturation, Middle Childhood and the Pattern of Growth and Development in Earlier Hominins (Janet Monge & Alan Mann)
Chapter 16: Perikymata Counts in Two Modern Human Sample Populations (Michael Sheng-Tien Yuan)
Chapter 17: Mosaic Cognitive Evolution: The Case of Imitation Learning (Francys Subiaul)
Chapter 18: The Foundations of Primate Intelligence and Language Skills (Duane M. Rumbaugh, E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, James E. King and Jared P. Taglialatella)
Chapter 19: Hominid Brain Reorganization, Technological Change, and Cognitive Complexity (Nicholas Toth & Kathy Schick)
This book focuses on innovative new approaches to the archaeological evidence for protohuman behavior found in the Early Stone Age, based on a recent international conference held at the Stone Age Institute. Major researchers in the field present important new findings from a range of well-preserved archaeological sites and critical experimental archaeological investigations. Topics include: early stone artifact assemblage variability at Gona, Ethiopia and at Koobi Fora, Kenya; early human presence in North Africa; technological strategies and patterns at Peninj, Tanzania; the Oldowan industries from Sterkfontein Cave, South Africa ; flaking accidents and knapping skills at Hadar, Ethiopia; hominin transport of stone at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania; a critical examination of the early occupation of India; new methods for quantifying stone tool cutting efficiency in the Oldowan and Acheulean; evidence for early occupation Eurasia, with particular attention to early sites in Spain, as well as early hominin presence in China in the Nihewan Basin; a comparative experimental study of Oldowan artifacts made by novices and by expert toolmakers; and experimental zooarchaeology with regard to the anatomical patterning of butchery marks.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Changes in Hominin Trasnport of Stone for Oldowan Tools across the Eastern Olduvai Basin During Lowermost Bed II Times (Robert J. Blumenschine, Fidelis T. Masao and Ian G. Stanistreet)
Chapter 2: Plio-Pleistocene Technological Variation: A View from the KBS Mbr., Koobi Fora Formation (David R. Braun & John W. K. Harris)
Chapter 3: Was There an Oldowan Occupation in the Indian Subcontinent? (Parth R. Chauhan)
Chapter 4: Archaic Stone Industries from East Africa and Southern Europe: Pre-Oldowan and Oldowan (Henry de Lumley, Deborah Barsky, and Dominique Cauche)
Chapter 5: Technological Strategies in the Lowere Pleistocene at Peninj, West of Lake Natron, Tanzania (Ignacio de la Torre)
Chapter 6: The Oldest Occupation of Europe: Evidence from Southern Spain (Beatriz Fajardo)
Chapter 7: Learning from Mistakes: Flaking Accidents and Knapping Skills in the Assemblages of A.L. 894, Hadar, Ethiopia (Erella Hovers)
Chapter 8: The Oldowan Industry from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa (K. Kuman & A. S. Field)
Chapter 9: Experimental Zooarchaeology and Its Role in Defining the Investigative Parameters of the Behavior of Early Stone Age Hominids (Travis Rayne Pickering & Charles P. Egeland)
Chapter 10: The Oldowan in North Africa within a Biochronological Framework (Mohamed Sahnouni & Jan van der Made)
Chapter 11: Insights into Late Pliocene Lithic Assemblage Variability: The East Gona and Ounda Gona South Oldowan Archaeology (2.6 Million Years Ago), Afar, Ethiopia (Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers, and Dietrich Stout)
Chapter 12: Understanding Oldowan Knapping Skill: An Experimental Study of Skill Acquisition in Modern Humans (Dietrich Stout, Kathy Schick, and Nicholas Toth)
Chapter 13: The Importance of Actualistic Studies in Early Stone Age Research : Some Personal Reflections (Nicholas Toth & Kathy Schick)
Taphonomy, the study of the processes leading to the fossilization of organic remains, is one of the most important avenues of inquiry in human origins research. Breathing Life into Fossils: Taphonomic Studies in Honor of C.K. (Bob) Brain is a major contribution to taphonomic studies in paleoanthropology and natural history. This book emanates from a Stone Age Institute conference celebrating the life and career of naturalist Bob Brain, a pioneer in bringing taphonomic perspectives to human evolutionary studies. Contributions by leading researchers provide a state-of-the-art look at the maturing field of taphonomy and the unique perspectives it provides to research into human origins. This important volume reveals approaches taken to the study of bone accumulations at prehistoric sites in Africa, Eurasia, and America, and provides fascinating insights into patterns produced by carnivores, by hunter-gatherers, and by our early human ancestors.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Fifty Years of Fun with Fossils: Some Cave Taphonomy - Related Ideas and Concepts that Emerged Between 1953 and 2003 (C.K. Brain)
Chapter 2: Rather Odd Detective Stories: A View of Some Actualistic and Taphonomic Trends in Paleoindian Studies (Gary Haynes)
Chapter 3: The Destruction of Skeletal Elements by Carnivores: The Growth of a General Model for Skeletal Element Destruction and Survival in Zooarchaeological Assemblages (Naomi Cleghorn & Curtis W. Marean)
Chapter 4: Hominids and Carnivores at Kromdraai and Other Quaternary Sites in Southern Africa (J. Francis Thackeray)
Chapter 5: Taphonomic Analysis of an Excavated Striped Hyena Den from the Eastern Desert of Jordan (Kathy Schick, Nicholas Toth, Thomas Gehling and Travis Rayne Pickering)
Chapter 6: Taphonomic and Site Formation of Two Early Miocene Sites on Rusinga Island, Kenya (Alan Walker)
Chapter 7: Are You In or Out (of Africa)? Site Formation at Dmanisi and Actualistic Studies in Africa (Martha Tappen, David Lordkipanidze, Maia Bukshianidze, Reid Ferring and Abesalom Vekua)
Chapter 8: Changes Through Time in Carcass Survival in the Amboseli Ecosystem, Southern Kenya (A.K. Behrensmeyer)
Chapter 9: Vertebrate Taphonomic Perspectives on Oldowan Hominin Land Use in the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania (Robert J. Blumenschine, Charles R. Peters, Salvatore D. Capaldo, Peter Andrews, Jackson K. Njau and Briana L. Pobiner)
Chapter 10: The Earliest Stone Age in South Africa: Site Context and the Influence of Cave Studies (Kathleen Kuman)
Chapter 11: Taphonomy of Sterkfontein Australopithecus Skeletons (Ron J. Clarke)
Chapter 12: Taphonomy of Immature Hominid Skulls and the Taung, Mojokerto, and Herto Specimens (Gail E. Krovitz & Pat Shipman)
Chapter 13: Carcass Foraging by Early Hominids at Swartkrans Cave (South Africa): A New Investigation of the Zooarchaeology and the Taphonomy of Member 3 (Travis Rayne Pickering, Manuel Dominquez-Rodrigo, Charles P. Egeland and C.K. Brain)
Chapter 14: Equinifinality in Carniore Tooth Marks and the Extended Concept of Archaeological Palimpsests: Implications for Models of Passive Scavening by Early Hominids (Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo, Charles P. Egeland and Travis Rayne Pickering)
Chapter 15: Butchering Backstraps and Bearing Backbones: Insights from Hadza Foragers and Implications for Paleolithic Archaeology (Henry T. Bunn)
Chapter 16: Carnivora and Carnivory: Assessing Hominid Toothmarks in Zooarchaeology (Tim D. White & Nicholas Toth)
The earliest traces of proto-human technology emerged over 2.5 million years ago on the African continent. Called the Oldowan after the famous site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, these technologies herald a major evolutionary shift in the human lineage. The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age provides a critical look at early archaeological sites and their evidence. This volume also shows how a range of probing, multidisciplinary, experimental investigations -- including experimental tool-making, comparative studies of ape technologies, biomechanical analysis, and PET studies of brain activity -- help us evaluate this tantalizing prehistoric evidence and appreciate its relevance to human evolution.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: An Overview of the Oldowan Industrial Complex: The sites and the nature of their evidence (Kathy Schick & Nicholas Toth)
Chapter 2: The Oldest Stone Artifacts from Gona (2.6-2.5Mya, Afar, Ethiopia: Implications for understanding the earliest stages of stone knapping (Sileshi Semaw)
Chapter 3: The North African Early Stone Age and the Sites at Ain Hanech, Algeria (Mohamed Sahnouni)
Chapter 4: The Acquisition and Use of Large Mammal Carcasses by Oldowan Hominins in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Selected Review and Assessment (Travis Rayne Pickering & Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo)
Chapter 5: After the African Oldowan: The Earliest Technologies of Europe (Fernando Diez-Martín)
Chapter 6: A Comparative Study of the Stone Tool-making Skills Pan, Australopithecus, and Homo sapiens (Nicholas Toth, Kathy Schick, and Sileshi Semaw)
Chapter 7: Rules and Tools: Beyond Anthropomorphism (Sue Savage-Rumbaugh & William Mintz Fields)
Chapter 8: Sex Differences in Chimpanzee Foraging Behavior and Tool Use: Implications for the Oldowan (Kevin Hunt)
Chapter 9: Oldowan Toolmaking and Hominin Brain Evolution: Theory and research using positron emission tomography (PET) (Dietrich Stout)
Chapter 10: Knapping Skill of the Earliest Stone Toomakers: Insights from the study of modern human novices (Dietrich Stout & Sileshi Semaw)
Chapter 11: Comparing the Neural Foundations of Oldowan and Acheulean Toolmaking: A pilot study using positron emission tomography (PET) (Dietrich Stout, Nicholas Toth, and Kathy Schick)
Chapter 12: The Biomechanics of the Arm Swing in Oldowan Stone Flaking (Jesus Dapena, William J. Anderst, and Nicholas P. Toth)
2014 Johnson, Claudia C.C., Njau, J., Kauffman, C.E., Kauffman, E., Toth, N., Schick, K., and Kearney, J. "Bivalve mollusc assemblage of Bed III, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." 10th North American Paleontology Convention, Abstract Book, p. 35.
2012 Njau, Jackson. "Reading Pliocene Bones." Science, 336: 46-47.
2012 Schoenemann, P. Thomas. “Evolution of Brain and Language.” In (Michel A. Hofman and Dean Falk, Eds.), Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior. Series title: Progress in Brain Research, (Stephen Waxman, Donald G. Stein, Dick Swaab and Howard Fields, series Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Vol. 195, pp. 443-
2011 Monge, Janet and P. Thomas Schoenemann. “The Open Research Scan Archive (ORSA): A massive open-access archive of research quality computed tomography (CT) scans.” In (Roberto Macchiarelli & Gerd-Christian Weniger, Eds.), Pleistocene Databases: Acquisition, Storing, Sharing. Mettmann, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Schriften des Neanderthal Museums. Vol. 4, pp. 61-67.
2010 Stout, Dietrich, Sileshi Semaw, Michael J. Rogers, Dominique Cauche. "Technological variation in the earliest Oldowan from Gona, Ethiopia." Journal of Human Evolution 58:474-491.
2010 Sahnouni, Mohamed, Jan van der Made, and Melanie Everett. “Early North Africa: Chronology, Ecology, and Hominin Behavior: Insights from Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, northeastern Algeria.” Quaternary International 30(11-12): 1303-1317.
2010 Schoenemann, P. Tom. "The Meaning of Brain Size: The Evolution of Conceptual Complexity." In (Douglas Broadfield, Michael Yuan, Kathy Schick, and Nicholas Toth, Eds.), The Human Brain Evolving: Papers in Honor of Ralph L. Holloway. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 293-312.
2010 Toth, Nicholas and Kathy Schick. "Hominin brain reorganization, technological change, and cognitive complexity." In (Douglas Broadfield, Michael Yuan, Kathy Schick, and Nicholas Toth, Eds.), The Human Brain Evolving: Papers in Honor of Ralph L. Holloway. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 293-312.
2009 Sahnouni Mohamed, and Jan van der Made. The Oldowan in North Africa within a biochronological framework. In (K. Schick and N.Toth, Eds.), The Cutting Edge: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Human Origins. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 179-210.
2009 Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick. “The Importance of Actualistic Studies in Stone Age Research. In (K. Schick and N. Toth, Eds.), The Cutting Edge: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Human Origins. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp 267-344.
2009 Semaw, Sileshi, Michael Rogers, and Dietrich Stout. “Insights into Late Pliocene Lithic Assemblage Variability: The East Gona and Ounda Gona South Oldowan Archaeology (2.6 Million Years Ago), Afar, Ethiopia. In (K. Schick and N. Toth, Eds.), The Cutting Edge: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Human Origins. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 211-246.
2009 Schoenemann, P. Thomas. "Evolution of Brain and Language." Language Learning 59(s1):162-186
2009 Stout, Dietrich, Nicholas Toth, Kathy Schick, and Thierry Chaminade. “Neural Correlates of Early Stone Age Toolmaking: Technology, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution.” In (C. Renfrew, C. Frith, and L Malafouris, Eds.) The Sapient Mind: Archaeology Meets Neuroscience. Pp. 1-19.
2009 Toth, Nicholas and Kathy Schick. “The Oldowan: The Tool Making of Early Hominins and Chimpanzees Compared.” Annual Review of Anthropology 38:289-305.
2009 Whiten, Andrew, Kathy Schick and Nicholas Toth. “The evolution and cultural transmission of percussive technology: Integrating evidence from palaeoanthropology and primatology.” Journal of Human Evolution, 57(4): 420-435.
2009 Beckner, Clay, Richard Blythe, Joan Bybee, Morten H. Christiansen, William Croft, Nick C. Ellis, John Holland, Jinyun Ke, Diane Larsen-Freeman, P. Tom Schoenemann. “Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper,” Language Learning, 59(Suppl. 1):1-26
2008 Kleinsasser, L., Quade, J., Levin, N., Simpson, N., McIntosh, W.C. and Semaw, S. Geochronology of the Adu-Asa Formation, Gona, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Special Volume 446:33-65.
2008 Quade, J., Levin, N., Simpson, S.W., Butler, R., McIntosh, W., Semaw, S., Kleinsasser, L., Dupont-Nivet, G., Renne, P. and Dunbar, N.. The Geology of Gona, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Special Paper 446:1-31.
2008 Simpson, Scott, Jay Quade, Naomi Levin, Robert Butler, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, Melanie Everett, Sileshi Semaw. Science 322:1089-1092.
2007 Sahnouni, Mohamed and Abdelkader Derradji. “The Lower Palaeolithic of the Maghreb: Current State of Knowledge.” Adumatu: A Semi-Annual Archaeological Refereed Journal on the Arab World 15:7-44.
2007 Schick, Kathy, Nicholas Toth, Thomas Gehling, and Travis Pickering. “A Taphonomic Analysis of an Excavated Striped Hyena Den from the Eastern Desert of Jordan.” In (Travis Pickering, Kathy Schick, and Nicholas Toth, Eds.) Breathing Life into Fossils: Taphonomic Studies in Honor of C.K. “Bob” Brain. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 75-106.
2007 White, Tim and Nicholas Toth. “Carnivora and Carnivory: Assessing Hominid Toothmarks in Zooarchaeology.” In (Travis Pickering, Kathy Schick, and Nicholas Toth, Eds.) Breathing Life into Fossils: Taphonomic Studies in Honor of C.K. “Bob” Brain. Pp. 281-296. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press.
2006 Hadjoius, Djillali and Mohamed Sahnouni. “Pelorovis howelli nov. sp. (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): a new bovine from the Lower Pleistocene site of Ain Hanech (El-Kherba locus), Northeastern Algeria.” Geobios 234:1-6.
2006 Sahnouni, Mohamed. “Les plus vieilles traces d'occupation humaine en Afrique du Nord. Perspective de l'Ain Hanech, Algérie.” Comptes Rendus Palevol, 5 (1-2): 243-254.
2006 Sahnouni, Mohamed. “The North African Early Stone Age and the Sites at Ain Hanech, Algeria.” In In (Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Eds.) The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 77-111.
2006 Schick, Kathy and Nicholas Toth. “An Overview of the Oldowan Industrial Complex: The Sites and the Nature of Their Evidence.” In (Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Eds.) The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 3-42.
2006 Semaw, Sileshi. “The Oldest Stone Artifacts from Gona (2.6-2.5 Ma), Afar, Ethiopia: Implications for Understanding the Earliest Stages of Stone Knapping.” In (Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Eds.) The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 43-75.
2006 Stout, Dietrich, Nicholas Toth, and Kathy Schick. “Comparing the Neural Foundations of Oldowan and Acheulean Toolmaking: A Pilot Study Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET).” In (Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Eds.) The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 321-331.
2006 Toth, Nicholas, Kathy Schick, and Sileshi Semaw. 2006. “A Comparative Study of the Stone Tool-Making Skills of Pan, Australopithecus, and Homo sapiens. In (Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Eds.) The Oldowan: Case Studies into the Earliest Stone Age. Gosport, Indiana: Stone Age Institute Press. Pp. 155-222.
2005 Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., Pickering, T.R., Semaw, S. and Rogers, M. Cutmarked bones from archaeological sites at Gona, Afar, Etiopía: Implications for the function of the world’s oldest sotne tools. Journal of Human Evolution, 48:109-121.
2005 Sahnouni, Mohamed, Editor. Le Paléolithique en Afrique: L’Histoire la Plus Longue. Paris: Éditions Artcom’.
2005 Sahnouni, Mohamed. Point des connaissances du Paléolithique ancient d’Afrique du Nord et la question de la première occupation humaine au Maghreb. In (M. Sahnouni, Ed.): Le Paléolithique en Afrique: L’Histoire la Plus Longue. Paris: Éditions Artcom’. Pp. 99-128.
2005 Semaw, Sileshi. Les plus anciens artefacts lithiques (2.6-2.5 millions d’années) des site archéologiques du Pliocène Final de EG-10 et EG-12 à Gona Est, Afar, Ethiopie. In (M. Sahnouni, Ed.) Le Paléolithique en Afrique: L’Histoire la Plus Longue. Paris: Éditions Artcom’. Pp. 13-52.
2005 Stout, D., Quade, J., Semaw, S. and Rogers, M. Raw material selectivity of the earliest tool makers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution, 48:365-380.
2005 Semaw, Sileshi, Scott Simpson, Jay Quade, Paul Renne, Robert Butler, William McIntosh, Naomi Levin, Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo, and Michael Rogers. “Early Pliocene Hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.” Nature 433:301-304.
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